The Konyaspor centre-back was pronounced dead at the scene after losing control of his vehicle on a motorway around 9am on Tuesday morning.
Calik was the only person involved in the accident, which has sent shock waves through Turkish football.
The former Galatasaray defender made eight caps for his country after rising through the youth ranks.
Konyaspor tweeted: “We are deeply saddened by the loss of our football player Ahmet Calik, who has won the love of our fans and our city since the first day he came to our Konyaspor.
“Condolences to all of us, especially to the family of our football player Ahmet Calik.”